In industry most of the materials are fabricated into the desired shapes mainly by one of the four methods, casting, forming, machining and welding. The selection of a particular technique depends upon different factors which may include shape and the size of the component, precision required, cost, material and its availability. Sometimes it is possible to use only one specific process to achieve the desired object. However, more often it is possible to have a choice between the processes available for making the end product. In the latter case economy plays the decisive role in making the final choice.Learn more at jkwelding.net.

CASTING

Casting is perhaps the oldest known method of giving shapes to metals and alloys. When found suitable, it is the shortest route from the ore to the end product and usually the most economical. Through these days techniques have been developed to cast almost all metals and their alloys but still there are certain specific materials which have very superior casting properties, for example grey cast iron.

FORMING

After casting followed the forming process in which the metals and their alloys are given desired shapes by the application of pressure, either by sudden impact as in the case of hammer blows or by slow kneading action as in hydraulic presses. Mechanical working of a metal below its recrystallisation temperature is called ‘Cold Working’ and that accomplished above this temperature is known as ‘Hot Working’. Both hot and cold working (and forming) is practised extensively in the industry.

MACHINING

It is the process of giving the desired shape to a given material by removing the extra or unwanted material by cutting in the form of chips. The cutting tool material is by necessity harder and stronger than the material to be cut. The machining processes commonly employed are turning, milling, drilling, shaping, planning, reaming, boring etc. Through lathes and milling machines were used in connection with watch making even in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries but most of theses processes were introduced into the high volume industries in their present forms for making stream engine parts in the late nineteenth century but have come of age in the present century.

WELDING

Welding as it is normally understood today is comparatively a new corner amongst the fabrication process through smith forging to join metal pieces was practised even before Christ. Through there are a number of well established welding process but arc welding with coated electrodes is still most popular welding process the world over.

These days different welding machine developed for different welding process like arc welding machine, MIG welding machine, TIG welding machine, welding rectifier, spot welding machine, plasma cutting machine and also portable welding machine like inverter welding machine (IGBT welding).